Tephra, Lava flow and Nuee Ardente Hazard Assessment and Zoning of Bazman Volcano, SE Iran


1 Department of Geology, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman

2 Department of Mining Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman


Bazman volcano is a member of the volcanic arc of Makran subduction zone. According to previous eruptions, its future likely eruption may be accompanied by lava flow, tephra, and nuee ardente generation. Such indicators as mild erosion, thermal springs, fresh lavas, and continued subduction of the oceanic plate of the Oman sea reveal that Bazman can be reactivated in the future. Its eruption is estimated to be the volcano to sub-Plinian type with VEI of 3-5. For zoning the hazards, ARC GIS, ENVI as well as VORIS softwares were employed by using DEM and satellite pictures. For the construction of the tephra fallout map the convection-dispersion model, and for the construction of nuee ardente spread-out map, the Malin and Sheridan (1982) model were employed. Also, a simulation model was used for the generation of lava spreading map. According to the study, in accordant with prevailing western winds, the ashes will move towards the east. However, lava flows may spread in the north, west, and east direction. Nuee ardentes can spread in almost all directions. Bazman town is not under threat, but some parts of Bam-Iranshahr road may be threatened by ashes and lava flows. Additionally, ashes may reach several remote and small villages but the risk to them is low.


Ahmadi, A., Firouzkouhi, Z., Farimani, A. M., Lentz, D.R., 2017. Geochemical and textural characteristics of plagioclase as evidence for open-system processes: Case study from Bazman volcano (SE Iran). Iranian Journal of Crystallography and Mineralogy 25, 367-380.
Bardintzeff, J.M., McBirney, A., 2000. Volcanology, Jones & Bartlett Publishers; 2nd edition. p. 299.
Biabangard, H., Ahmadi Khalaji, A., Tahmasbi, Z.,Sharifi Nejad, A., 2020. Geochemistry and Thermobarometry of Bazman volcanic rocks, An example of active continental margin volcano. Quaternary Journal of Iran 6(6), 229-256.
Blong, R. J., 1984. Volcanic Hazards: A Sourcebook on the Effects of Eruptions. San Diego, CA, Academic Press. p. 289.
Cas, R.,Giordano G. Wright,J.V., 2022. Volcanology: processes, deposits,geology and resources, Springer, pp. 1752. ISBN: 9783319666129.
Connor, C. B., Hill, B.E., Winfrey, B., Franklin, N. M., Femina, P.C.L., 2001. Estimation of volcanic hazards from tephra fallout. Natural Hazards Review 2(1), 33-42.
Darvishzadeh, A., 1981. Principles of volcanology (in Persian), Tehran university publications, p. 342.
Darvishzadeh, A., 2004. Volcanoes and volcanic facies (in Persian), university of Tehran press, p. 587.
Farhoudi, G., Karig, D.E., 1977. Makran of Iran and Pakistan as an active arc system. Geology 5(11), 664-668.
Felpeto, A., 2009. VORIS, a GIS based tool for volcanic hazard assessment, User Guide. Observatorio Geofísico Central, IGN. p. 40.
Felpeto, A., Marti, J., Ortiz, R., 2007. Automatic GIS-based system for volcanic hazard assessment. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 166, 106-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2007.07.008
Ghorbani, M., 2003. Principles of volcanology and a review on volcanism in Iran, (in Persian), Arianzamin press, p. 362.
Habibi Mood. S., Jami, M., Saeedi, M., Kakha, G., Jami, H.A., 2021. Analysis of relative study of active tectonics using tectonic morphotectonic indices in the southeastern basins of Bazman volcanic zone, Journal of Natural Environmental Hazards 10(28), 107-130. https://doi.org/10.22111/jneh.2020.33715.1643
Jenkins, C., 2022. Volcanology: Geological and Applied Aspects, States Academic Press, p. 245.
Khaiatzadeh, A., Abbasnejad A., 2017. Application of EN-SAW and ANP multi-criteria decision making methods in geology: reactivation hazard assessment and ranking of Iranian stratovolcanoes as a case study, Geosciences 26, 137-146. https://doi.org/10.22071/gsj.2017.44133
Khaiatzadeh, A., Abbasnejad, A., Ranjbar, H., 2016. Tephra, Lava Flow and Nuée Ardente Hazard Zoning of Taftan Volcano, SE Iran. Journal of Geography and Environmental Hazards 5(2), 17-30. https://doi.org/10.22067/geo.v5i2.42555
Kopp, C., Fruehn, J., Flueh, E. R., Reichert, C., Kukowski, N., Bialas, J., Klaeschen, D., 2000. Structure of the Makran subduction zone from wide-angle and reflection seismic data. Tectonophysics 329(1-4), 171-191.
Kusky, T.M., 2008. Volcanoes: Eruptions and Other Volcanic Hazards. Infobase Publishing.
Latter, J.H., 2012. Volcanic Hazards: Assessment and Monitoring. Germany: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 625.
Loughlin, S.C., Sparks, R.S.J., Sparks, S., Brown, S.K., Jenkins, S.F., Vye-Brown, C., (Eds.), 2015. Global volcanic hazards and risk. Cambridge University Press.
Malin, M.C., Sheridan, M.F., 1982. Computer-assisted mapping of pyroclastic surges. Science 217, 637-640.
Mastin, L.G., Guffanti, M., Servranckx, R., Webley, P., Barsotti, S., Dean, K., Durant, A., et al., 2009. A multidisciplinary effort to assign realistic source parameters to models of volcanic ash-cloud transport and dispersion during eruptions". Journal of volcanology and Geothermal Research 186, 10-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.01.008
Mortazavi, M., Sparks, R.S.J., Amigo, A., 2009. Evidence for recent rarge magnitude explosive eruptions at Damavand volcano, Iran with implications for volcanic hazards. Journal of Sciences, 20(3), 253-264.
Nicolson, E., Volcanology. 2020. United States: SYRAWOOD Publishing House. p. 224.
Papale, P., Shroder F., 2014. Volcanic Hazards, Risks and Disasters. Netherlands: Elsevier Science. p. 532.
Parfitt, E.A., Wilson, L., 2008. Fundamental of physical volcanology.blackwell publishing Ltd. p. 230.
Penney, C., Tavakoli, F., Saadat, A., Nankali, H.R., Sedighi, M., Khorrami, F. Priestley, K., 2017. Megathrust and accretionary wedge properties and behaviour in the Makran subduction zone. Geophysical Journal International 209(3), 1800-1830. https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggx126
Platt, J.P., Leggett, J.K., Young, J., Raza, H., Alam, S., 1985. Large-scale sediment underplating in the Makran accretionary prism, southwest Pakistan. Geology 13(7), 507-511.
Rahimzadeh, D., 1996. A report on Bazman volcanic area (in Persian), Geological survey of Iran.
Sahandi, M., Padashi, M., 2003. Geological quaderangle of Bazman (scale 1:100,000), Geological Survey of Iran.
Salkhi, R., 1997. Volcanology and petrology of Quaternary volcanoes of Gehghan-e Bala region-NW of Bazman.  M. Sc. Thesis, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
Schmincke, H.U., 2012. Volcanism. Springer. p. 324.
Shiaian, K., Ghalamghash, J., Vosoughi, A.M., Masoudi, F., 2015. Geology, Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of BazmanVolcano, SE of Iran (in Persian), Scientific Quarterly Journal of Geosciences 24 (95), 99-110. https://doi.org/10.22071/gsj.2015.42387
Shiaian, K., Dabiri, R., 2019. Chemistry of mafic minerals and thermobarometry of Bazman Quaternary volcanic rocks (in Persian). Quaternary Journal of Iran 5, 205-220.
Simmons B., 2022. Understanding volcanology. Callisto Reference. p. 235.
Tilling, R.I., 1989. Volcanic hazards and their mitigation: progress and problems. Reviews of Geophysics 27(2), 237-269.