Identification of areas hoping for shallow karst water resources in Qazvin province using infrared thermal images


1 Department of Geology Faculty of Science IK Int. University Qazvin-Iran

2 Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute, Tehran, Iran


Karst water resources influence rock masses and their surfaces via heat transfer and evaporation from joints and sinkholes, by thermal remote ending. Therefore, the required data such as maps, satellite images, indices and field data for Qazvin region ware provided and analyzed for rule bases development needed for relational modeling. By making use of these rule bases and relational modeling, the areas of hope for having shallow depth karst water resources were identified. Accuracy assessment was performed by logical analysis of drainage densities and spatial relation of springs and the areas of hope for shallow karst water resources in the study area. The karstic springs were appeared beside the areas of hope and at lower altitudes. More than 75% of areas of hope are coincide with low drainage density zones and frequency of these areas is reduced to 5% by increasing of drainage densities. Conclusion was drawn that logical integration of thermal infrared images, geological and other environmental data in a GIS domain as applied before in Kermanshah and Azarshahr can provide useful information on allocating areas of hope for new water resources potentials in carbonate formations.


Alavipanah, K., 2016. Thermal remote sensing and its application in earth sciences. Tehran University Publications.
Alizadeh, A., 2014. Principles of applied hydrology. 34th edition, Astan Quds Razavi Publishing House.
Astier, J.L., 1974. Application of geophysics to groundwater exploration (Geophysique appliqué Al’ Hydrogeologie), 120 Bd Saint-Germain, Paris.
Avish M.F., Ranjbar H., Hojjat A., Karimi Nasab S., Masoumi A., 2016. Remote sensing and magnetometry studies for the exploration of geothermal resources in Sirch-Golbaf area of Kerman province. Applied Geophysics Research Journal, 3 (11-33): 99-118,
Daneshkar Arasteh, P., Tajirishi, M., Saghafian, B., 2005. Identification of surface temperature using remote sensing technology in Sistan Region, Water and Watershed Journal 2 (2), 13-21.
Engman, E.T., Gurney, R.J., 1991. Remote sensing in Hydrology, Chapman and Hall, London, p. 225.
Ford, D.C., Williams, P.W., 2007. Karst Hydrogeology and Geomorphology, John Wiley and Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, p. 562.
Gale, W., 1992. The potential of satellites for wide area surveillance of Australia. Royal Australian Air Force Air power studies center.
Ghazanfari, P., Bakhtiari, M., Taj-abadi, M., 2016. Karst landforms and springs of Alamut valley, north of Qazvin. Quaternary of Iran 2 (8), 353-366.
Ghazanfari, P., Bakhtiari, M., Jalali, N., 2014. Karstification of carbonate rocks using RS and GIS in Alamut region, North Qazvin. Iran Quaternary 4, 339-352.
Ghazanfari, P., Jalali, N., Tajabadi, M., 2014. Evaluation of the potential of karst water resources in Qazvin province using RS and GIS new methods. Regional Water Organization of Qazvin Province (Unpublished report).
Ghobadi, M.H., Taleb Beidokhti, A.R., Momeni, A.A., 2010. The role of lithology and tectonic structures in karst expansion, watershed change and the quality of karst springs in Qazvin Abegarm area. Journal of Iranian Association of Engineering Geology 3 (3-4), 1-12
Heilman, J.L., Moore, D.G., 1979. Ground water applications of the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission. In: Deutsch, M.D.R., Rango, W.A., (Eds.). Satellite Hydrology. American Water Resources Association, pp. 447–451.
Jalali, N., Fatehi, A., Norouzi, A.A., Kheirkhah, M.M., Mirghasemi, S.A., 1999. Change Detection of Natural Vegetation Cover in the Territory of Iran Caused by Pollution Resulting from the Kuwaiti Oil well fires during the 1991 Persian Gulf War, Soil Conservation & Watershed Management Research Center of I.R of Iran, ، ISBN, ITC publication No.: 9061641608
Jalali, N., Kazemi, R., 2020. Identification of subsurface spaces in Shiramin Azarshahr region using thermal infrared satellite images. Journal of Advanced Applied Geology 3 (10), 370-381.
Jalali, N., Saghafian, B., Imanov, F., Museyyibov, M., 2009. Recognition of shallow karst water resources and cave potentials using thermal infrared image and terrain characteristics in semi-arid regions of Iran. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 11, 439–447.
Japan Remote Sensing Association 1996. Basics of Remote Sensing. Translated by: Farshid Jahedi and Shahrokh Farrokhi, Iran Remote Sensing Center Publications.
Jensen J.R., 1989,. Introductory digital image processing. A remote sensing [perspective Prentice-hall, Englewood Cliff, New Jersey, p. 656.
Legg, C., 1995. Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems: Geological Mapping, Mineral Exploration and Mining. Wiley & Sons, p. 172.
Naseri, H.R., Khodayi, K., 2000. Preparing a map of contours and vegetation as an indicator of underground water in the karst region of the north of Oshnaviye city using satellite data, the 4th conference of the Earth Society Iranian Studies, Tabriz.
Milanovic´, P.T., 1981. Karst Hydrogeology, Water Resources Publications, Littleton, Co. p. 434.
Meijerink, A.M.J., Bannert, D., Batelaan, O., Lubczynski, M.W., Pointet, T., 2008. Remote Sensing Application to Groundwater, IHP-VI, Series on Groundwater, No. 16, ITC, Enschede, The Netherlands.
Rinker, J.N., 1974. An application of air photo analysis to a cave location study: Proceedings of the 40th annual meeting, American Society of Photogrammetry, 281-289.
Rinker, J.N., 1975. Airborne infrared thermal detection of caves and crevasses.  Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 44(11), 1391-1400.
Rouse, J.W., Haas, R.H., Schell, J.A., Deering, D.W., 1973. Monitoring vegetation systems in the great plain with ERTS, Third ERTS Symposium, NASA SP-351 I, 309-317.
Shopov, Y., Ognianov, O., Filipov, A., Ivanov, I.R., 2019. Development of Technology for Remote Location of Unknown Underground Cavities and Deep-Seated Rockslides by Unmanned Air Systems (UAS). Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 13p. https://doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1368/3/032032
Sobrino, J.A., Raissouni, N., 2000. Toward remote sensing methods for land cover dynamic monitoring application to Morocco. International journal of remote sensing 21, 353-366.
Theilen-Willige, B., 2018. Detection of Karst Features in the Black Hills Area in South Dakota/Wyoming, USA, Based on Evaluations of Remote Sensing Data, Geosciences 8 (6), 192; https://doi:10.3390/geosciences8060192
Travaglia, C., Ammar, O., 1998. General Organization of Remote Sensing, Syrian Arab Republic. Groundwater exploration by satellite remote sensing in the Syrian Arab Republic, RSC Series 76, FAO 1998.
Unal, A., Tufekchi, K., 2000. Using of Geographic Information System Techniques and Satellite Images in the Covered Karst Areas: Amasra-Arit Example, NW of Turkey, proceeding of international symposium on Karst, Karst-(2000), Ankara.
Waren Campbell, C.,  Abd El Latif, M., 1996. Application of Thermography to Karst Hydrology. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 58(3), 163-167.