Geology, mineralization and fluid inclusion studies of the South Ghabaqloujeh gold deposit, southwest Saqqez (Kurdistan)


1 Department of Geology, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Economic Geology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


South Ghabaqloujeh gold deposit is located 7 km southwest of Saqqez in the northwestern part of the Sanandaj–Sirjan zone. The rocks in the deposit area predominantly consist of Precambrian and Cretaceous volcanosedimentary sequences of schist, phyllite and marble which intruded by granitoid bodies. The main gold reservoir in the deposit is hosted inside a lens-shaped granitic body that is intruded along a Northeast - Southwest shear zone. The high-grade gold ores belong to highly deformed mylonitic and ultramylonitic granitoid rocks which associated with quartz, sericite-muscovite, carbonite and sulfide alteration minerals. Ore mineral assemblages of the deposit are simple and consist of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, magnetite, electrum, bismothinite and sylvanite. Electrum grains with less of than 50 microns in size has been found as intergrowth with quartz, carbonite and biotite and also in the form of inclusion and veinlet in pyrites. Fluid inclusion studies indicate homogenization temperatures between 162 and 255°C and salinity between 0.6 to 17.1 wt% NaCl eq. The study indicates that main characteristics of the geology and mineralization of the South Ghabaqloujeh gold deposit is similar to orogenic gold deposits


Aliyari, F., Rastad, E., Mohajjel, M., Arehart, G.B., 2009. Geology and geochemistry of D–O–C isotope systematics of the Qolqoleh gold deposit, Northwestern Iran: Implications for ore genesis. Ore Geology Reviews 36, 306–1314.
Babakhani, A.R., Hariri, A., Farjandi, F., 2003. Geological map of Saqqez, scale 1:100000. Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration of Iran.
Goldfarb, R.J., Baker, T., Dube, B., Groves, D.I., Hart, C.J.R., Gosselin, P., 2005. Distribution, character and genesis of gold deposits in metamorphic terranes. Economic Geology 100th Anniversary Volume, 407–450.
Goldfarb, R.J., Groves, D.I., 2015. Orogenic gold: common or evolving fluid and metal sources through time. Lithos 233, 2-26.
Goldstein, R.H., Reynolds, T.J., 1994. Systematics of fluid inclusions in diagenetic minerals. SEPM Short Course 3, 1–198.
Groves, D.I., Goldfarb, R.J., Gebre-Mariam, M., Hagemann, S.G., Robert, F., 1998. Orogenic gold deposits: A proposed classification in the context of their crustal distribution and relationship to other gold deposit types. Ore Geology Reviews 13, 7–27.
Groves, D.I., Goldfarb, R.J., Robert, F., Hart, C.J.R., 2003. Gold deposits in metamorphic belts: Overview of current understanding, outstanding problems, future research and exploration significance. Economic Geology 98, 1-29.
Hall, D.L., Sterner, S.M., Bodnar, R.J., 1988. Freezing point depression of NaCI-KCI-H2O solutions. Economic Geology 83, 197-202.
Heidari, S.M., 2004. Mineralogy, geochemistry and fabrics of gold mineralization in ductile shear zone of Kervian deposit, Southwest of Saqqez. Unpublished M.S Thesis, Tarbiat-Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
Heidari, S.M., Moosavi Makooi, S.A., Mirzakhanian, M., Rasoli, F., Ghaderi, M., Abadi, A.R., 2016. A review of tectono-magmatic evolution and gold metallogeny in the inner parts of Zagros orogeny: A tectonic model for the major gold deposits, western Iran. Eurasian Mining 25, 3-20.
Mohajjel, M., Fergusson, C.L., Sahandi, M.R., 2003. Cretaceous-Tertiary convergence and continental collision, Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, western Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Science 21, 397-412.
Nemati, M., 2017. Geology, mineralogy and geochemistry of Southern Ghabaghloujeh gold deposit, SW of Saqqez, Kordestan province. Unpublished M. S Thesis, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.
Niromand, Sh., Goldfarb, R.J, Moore, F., Mohajjel, M., Marsh, E.E., 2010. The Kharapeh orogenic gold deposit: Geological, structural, and geochemical controls on epizonal ore formation in west Azerbaigan provience, Northwestern Iran. Mineralium Deposita 46, 409–428.
Niroomand, S., 2011. The study of geology, mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of Kharapeh–Zinonjian gold deposit (NW Piranshahr–West Azarbaijan Province). Unpublished PhD Thesis, Shiraz University, Tehran, Iran.
Roedder, E., 1984. Fluid inclusions. Reviews in Mineralogy 12, 664 p.
Sheikholeslami, M.R., 2002. Evolution structurale et me´tamorphique de la marge sud de la microplaque de l’Iran central: les complexes me´tamorphiques de la re´gion de Neyriz (Zone de Sanandaj-Sirjan), The`se, universite´ de Brest, 194p.
Shepherd, T.J., Rankin, A.H., Alderton, D.H.M., 1985. A practical guide to fluid inclusion studies. Blackie, Glasgow, 223 p.
Sterner, S.M., Hall, D.L., Bodnar, R.J., 1988. Synthetic fluid inclusions V: solubility relations in the system NaCl-KCl-H2O under vaporsaturated conditions. Geochemica et Cosmochemica Acta 52, 989-1005.
Tajeddin, H., 2011. Ore controlling parametrs of gold mineralization in the metamorphic rocks of Sagez-Sardasht area, NW Sanandaj-Sirjan zone. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Tarbiat-Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
Tajeddin, H.A., 2008. Exploration and introduction of the gold mineralization at the Southern Ghabaghloujeh area (SW of Saqqez, Kordestan). Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration of Iran, Internal report 35p.
Valenza, K., Moritz, R., Mouttaqi, A., Fontignie, D., Sharp, Z., 2000. Vein and karst barite deposits in the western Jebilet of Morocco: fluid inclusion and isotope (S, O, Sr) evidence for regional fluid mixing related to central Atlantic Rifting. Economic Geology 95, 587-606.
Whitney, D.L., Evans, B.W., 2010. Abbreviations for names of rock-forming minerals. American Mineralogist 95, 185–187.
Wilkinson, J.J., 2001. Fluid inclusions in hydrothermal ore deposits. Lithos 55, 229-272.