Determination of tectonic setting of mud volcanoes in the western part of Golestan Province, using geo-information technology


Geology Department, Faculty of Sciences, Golestan University, Gorgan, Iran


Investigations on Tectonic setting of Mud Volcanoes show that these located mainly in active convergent margins with high rate of seismicity along fault zones, fault related folds and anticlinal axes. In this research, firstly, investigated on their relationship with geological structures (such a faults and folds) and regional seismicity and then, focused on determination of tectonic setting of mud volcanoes in Western part of Golestan province. This research shown that approximately 45 mud volcanoes spread in study area that five mud volcanoes: Gharnyaregh, Naftalijah, Suficam, Incheh and Gomishan are active. These mud volcanoes have tectonic related indicators such as: alignment along the main faults and seismic trends and also, located on anticlinal axes with hydrocarbour reservoir. In regard to these facts, we can deduced that these mud volcanoes are related to tectonic in a Transcurrent plate boundary which located in western Kopet dagh (with Continental crust) and south Caspian Basin (with oceanic crust) boundaries in a zone with North-South trend and 30 Km width.


Afsharharb, A., 1994. Geology of Iran: Kopet Dagh Geology, the Geology of Iran Montage Project, Geological Survey of Iran Publication 11, 275 (In Persian).
Aghanabati, S.A., 2004. Geology of Iran, Geological Survey of Iran Publication, 586p (In Persian).
Amursky, G.I., 1971. The deep structure of the Kopet-Dagh. Geotectonics 1, 34-40.
Alavi, M., 1991. Sedimentary and structural characteristics of the paleo-Tethys, remnants in northeastern Iran. Geological Society of America Bulletin 103, 9183-9192.
Bentacor, I.S., 2015. Mud diapirs and folds in South Caspian Basin: Geometry and syn-sedimentary evolution of structures with petroleum interest, PhD Thesis, University of Granada, 221p.
Berberian, M., 1983. The Southern Caspian: A compressional depression floored by trapped, modified oceanic crust. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 20 (21), 163-183.
Berberian, M., King, G.C.P.,1981. Towards a paleogeography and tectonic evolution of Iran. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 18, 210-265.
Bonini, M., 2012. Mud volcanoes: Indicators of stress orientation and tectonic controls. Earth Science Review 115, 121-152.
Delvin, W.J., Cogswell, J.M., etc. 1999. South Caspian Basin: Cool, Young and full of Promise, GSA Today. Geological Society of America 9 (7), 1-3.
Deville, E., Battan, A., Griboulard, R., Guer Luis, S., Herbni, J.P., Houzay, J.P., Muller, C., Prinzhofer, A., 2003. The origin and processes of mud volcanism: new insights from Trinidad, geological society, London, special publications 216, 475-490.
Fasl-e-Bahar, J., Purkermani, M., Fasl-e-Bahar, SH., 2010. Investigating Mud Volcanoes, South East Skirts of Caspian Sea, State’s Geology and Mining Discoveries, 75.
Fasl-e-Bahar, J., Purkermani, M., Fasl-e-Bahar, SH., 2009. Investigating on mud volcanoes. Geosciences Journal 20 (77), 57-82 (In Persian).
Feyzullayev, A.A., 2012. Mud volcanoes in the South Caspian basin: Nature and estimated depth of its products. Natural Science 4, 445-453.
Geological Survey of Iran Publication, 2006. The Tectonic lineament map of Iran, 1:5000000.
Guest, B., Guest, A., Axen, G., 2007. Late Tertiary tectonic evolution of Northern Iran: A case study of simple crustal folding. Global and Planetary Changes 58, 435-453.
Jakubov, A.A., Ali-Zade, A.A., Zeinalov, M.M., 1971. Mud volcanoes of the Azerbaijan SSR, Publishing house of the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaijan SSR, Baku.
  Mahdavian, A., 2013. Seismicity zonation of Golestan Province, Shahid Abbaspour Segment. Journal of Shahid Beheshti University 23 (89), 165-174 (In Persian).
Milkov, A.V., 2005. Global distribution of mud volcanoes and their significance in petroleum exploration, as a source of methane in the atmosphere and hydrosphere, and as Geohazard, In: Martinelli, G., Panahi, B., eds. Mud volcanoes, Geodynamics and Seismicity, IV Earth and Environ. Sciences, 51, 77-87.
Mirkazemian, M., 2009. Mud Volcanoes, National Geosciences Data Base of Iran, 40p (In Persian).
Mousavi Ruhbakhsh, M., 2001. Geology of Caspian Sea, The Geology of Iran Montage Project, Geological Survey of Iran Publication, 80, 254 (In Persian).
Nabavi, H., 1976. Introduction to geology of Iran, Geological Survey of Iran Publication, 109p (In Persian).
National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), 1977. Geological Map of North East of Iran, Scale: 1/1000000.
Nogol-e-Sadat, M.A.A., Almasian, M., 1993. Tectonic Map of Iran, Scale: 1/1000000, Treatise on the geology of Iran, Geological Survey of Iran.
Nogol-e-Sadat, M. A. A., 1988. Review of tectono-sedimentary zonation in Iran, International Geology Congress, Washington 2, 512.
Omrani, H., Raghimi, M., 2018. Origin of the mud volcanoes in the south east Caspian Basin, Iran. Marine and Petroleum Geology 96, 615-626.
Omrani, H., Raghimi, M., 2017. Structural and mineralogical studies of Qarnyaregh mud volcano, North of Aq-ghala, Golestan province, Internal research project, Golestan University, 29p (In Persian).
Planke, S., Svensen, H., Hovland, M., Banks, D.A., Jamtveit, B., 2003. Mud and fluid migraton in active mud volcanoes in Azerbaijan, Geo-Mari Processes of mud volcanism: New insights from Trinidad, Geogical Sociecty of London Publication 216, 475.
Ranjbaran, M., Sotohian, F., 2015. Environmental impact and sedimentary structures of mud volcanoes in southeast of the Caspian Sea basin, Golestan Province, Iran. Caspian Journal of Environmental Science 13 (4), 391-405.
Rezadoust, M., 2018. Tectonic Setting of Mud Volcanoes in Western part of Golestan province, Msc Thesis, Golestan University, 150p (In Persian).
Rezvandehy, M., Aghabaei, H., Tabatabaee Raissi, S.H., 2011. Integrating seismic attributes in the accurate modeling of geological structures and determining the storage of the gas reservoir in Gorgan Plain (North of Iran). Journal of Applied Geophysics 73, 187-195.
Rustaei, M., Rustaei, M., Zamani, B., Nemati, M., 2015. Studies of Neotectonic stress conditionand proposed a kinematic model for Gorgan plain, Northeastern of Iran. Geosciences Journal 25 (98), 375-384 (In Persian).
Safari, H., 2014. Deformation analysis of Northern limb of Eastern Alborz: Using Geo-information Technologies, Tectonic and Structure Journal 2 (4), 1-27 (In Persian).
Smith-Rouch, L., 2006. Oligocene- Miocene Maykop- Diatom total petroleum systems of the Caspian Sea basin provinces, Azerbaijan, Iran and Turkmenistan. USGS Bulletin No. 2201-4, 33p.
Stewart, S. A., Davies, R. J., 2006. Structure and emplacement of mud volcano systems in the South Caspian Basin, AAPG Bulletin, 90 (5), 771-786.
Stocklin, J., 1974. North Iran: Alborz Mountains, Geological Society, London, Special Publications 4, 213- 2334.
Stocklin, J., 1968. Structural history and tectonics of Iran, a review. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 52(7), 1229- 1258.
Yusifov, M., Rabinowitz Philip, D., 2004. Classification of mud Volcanoes the south Caspian Basin, offshore Azerbayjan. Marine and Petroleum Geology 21, 965-975.
Zonenshain, L.P., Le Pichon, X., 1986. Deep basins of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea as remnants of Mesozoic back-arc basins. Tectonophysics 123, 181-211.