Determination of the hydraulic Connection between the Ķīno anticline springs (Khuzestan province) using hydrochemical data, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster (HCA)


1 Department of Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of ahvaz, Iran

2 Graduated from the Department of Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of ahvaz, Iran


In the last decade, the management of karst water resources has been considered because of its particular role in supplying potable water. In this regard, this research studies the hydrochemical characteristics of springs located at the Ķīno anticline. The purpose of this research is to determine the hydraulic relationship and effective factors on the chemical quality of the springs by applying the hydrochemical data and using the main component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis methods. The results of the analysis of the main components method show that the two components have the most impact on the chemical quality of springs. The first factor consists of magnesium, bicarbonate, sodium, chlorine, Total Dissolved Solids, and electrical conductivity, which is influenced by the quality characteristics of Absard and Mourei springs. The second factor is calcium ions, sulfate, which play the most role in the chemical quality of Susan and Tangsard springs. To investigate the hydraulic connection of the springs, the hierarchical cluster analysis method was used in “Q-mode” mode. According to the results of this analysis, the data of the Ķīno anticline springs are split into two major clusters, which indicate the hydraulic connection between these springs in each cluster. The results of cluster analysis in “R-mode” mode are also validated by the Q-mode method. The Piper diagram and ion ratios were used to study the chemical processes in the springs. The results of this study showed that the S1 spring with S2 and the S3 spring with S4 have a hydraulic connection.


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