Mineralization and Formation of the Khan-e Sourmeh Pb-Zn Deposit (West of Isfahan) Based on Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Fluid Inclusion Evidences.


1 Department of Geology, Kharazmi University of Tehran

2 School of Geology, University College of Science, University of Tehran


 The Khan-e Sourmeh Pb-Zn deposit is located in 40 Km west of Isfahan, in the lower Cretaceous carbonate rocks. Hypogene minerals include galena, sphalerite, pyrite, tennantite, chalcopyrite, and supergene minerals are cerrusite, angelsite, covelite and malachite.Geochemical studies indicate that main source of  the metals was the lower Cretaceous carbonate layer with contribution from the upper Triassic shale. Microthermometry studies, indicate homogenization temperature of 210o to 240 oC and salinity of 7 to 8 wt% NaCl equivalent. Considering types of host rock, hypogene and supergene minerals, salinity and homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions, the khan-e Sourmeh Pb-Zn deposit is similar to MVT deposits with carbonate host rock. In Khan-e Sourmeh deposit, hydrothermal fluids after leaching the metals from Triassic shale layers and Cretaceous carbonate sequences, ascended through deep faults and mixed with connate and meteoric waters causing Pb-Zn deposition in fault zones. The result of this study help to find Pb-Zn minerals occurrence in lower depth of mine.


زمانیان، ح.، ۱٣٧٢، کانی شناسی، پاراژنز و نحوه تشکیل کانسار نقره و سرب آهنگران ملایر، پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زمین­شناسی، دانشکده علوم،دانشگاهتربیت معلم تهران، 280 صفحه.
 طاهریان، ع.ر.، ۱٣٧٢، بررسی تیپ، ارتباطات کانی شناسی، ژئوشیمیایی و ژنز احتمالی معدن سرب و روی انجیره تیران (غربنجف آباد)، پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه تربیت معلم تهران، 290 صفحه.
قدیمی، س.، نباتیان، ق.، 1393، بررسی زمین شیمیایی معدن روی -سرب انگوران و اثرات فعالیت­های معدنکاری بر آلودگی منطقه، مجله زمین شناسی کاربردی پیشرفته، شماره 13، صفحه 66-56.
 لطیفی ساعی، ف.، میرنژاد، ح.، علی­پور اصل، م.، نیرومند، ش.، 1393،بررسی کانی سازی طلا در سامانه رگه­ای دره زار در منطقه پاریز (استان کرمان) باتاکید بر مطالعات میانبارهای سیال و ایزوتوپ های گوگرد، مجله زمین شناسی کاربردی پیشرفته، شماره 14، صفحه 75-65.
 ناکینی، ع.، 1392، تحلیل ساختاری مناطق ایرانکوه و تیران (جنوب و غرب اصفهان)، پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، 180صفحه.
Appold, M.S., and Gruven, C., 1999. The hydrology of ore fonnation In the Southeast Missouri district: Numerical models of topography. driven fluid flow during the Ouachita orogeny, Economic geology. v. 94, p. 913-936.
Berger, B.R., 2000. Classification of mineral deposits. In: Seal II, R.R., Foley, N.K. (Eds.), Geoenvironmental Models of Mineral Deposits: U.S Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-195.
Brown P.E., 1989.  FLINCOR: a microcomputer program for the reduction and investigation of fluid inclusion data. American Mineralogist, 74, 1390– 1393.
Burnol, L., 1968. Contribution a l'etude des gisements de plomb et Zinc de l' Iran. Essais de classification paragenetique. Geological survey of Iran, report 11, Tehran.
Corbella, M., Ayora, C., and Cardellach, E., 2004, Hydrothermal mixing, carbonate dissolution and sulfide precipitation in Mississippi Valley-type deposits: Mineralium Deposita. v. 39, p. 344-357.
Cox, P., Singer, D.A., 1986. Mineral Deposit Model: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1693. 379 p.
Ehya, F., Lotfi, M. & Rassa, I., 2010, Emarat carbonate-hosted lead-zinc deposits,Markazi province, Iran: A geological, mineralogical and isotopic (S,Pb) study. Journal of  Asian Earth Science ,37(2), pp. 186-194.
Garven, G., 1985. The role of regional fluid flow in the genesis of the Pine Point deposit, Western Canada Sedimentary Basin: Economic Geology, v. 80, p. 307-324.
Garven, G., and Freeze, R.A., 1984. Theoretical analysis of the role of groundwater flow in the genesis of stratabound ore deposits. 2. Quantitative results: American Journal of Science, v. 284, p. 1125-1174.
Ghazban, F., McNutt, R.H. & Schwartz, H.P., 1994, Genesis of sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ba deposits in the Irankuh district, Esfahan area, west-central Iran. Economic Geology 89, 1262-1278.  
Graven, Y., Martin, A.-G., Baud, J.-P., Renault, T. & Gérard, A. 1998. Selecting the flat oyster Ostrea edulis (L.) for survival when infected with the parasite Bonamia ostreae. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 224: 91-107.
Leach, D.L., Bechstadt, T., Boni, M., and Zeeh, S., 2003, Triassic-hosted MVf Zn-Pb ores of Poland, Austria. Slovenia and Italy, In Kelly. J.G., Andrew. C.J., Ashton, J.H., Boland, M.B., Earls, G., Fusciardi, L., and Stanley. G., eds., Europe's major base metal depoSits: Dublin, Irish Association for Economic Geology, p. 169-214.
Leach, D.L., Bradley, D., Lewchuck, M.T., Symons, D.T.A., de Marsily, G., Brannon, J.C., 2001. Mississippi Valley-type lead–zinc deposits through geological time: implications from recent age-dating research. Miner. Deposita 36, pp. 711–740.
Leach, D.L., Sangster, D.F., Kelley, K.D., Large, R.R., Garven, G., Allen, C.R., Gutzmer, J., Walters, S., 2005. Sediment-hosted lead–zinc deposits: a global perspective. Economic Geology 100th Anniversary Volume. Society of Economic Geologists, Inc, pp. 561–607.
Maynard, B., 1983. Geochemistry of Sedimentary Ore Deposits, speringer-verlag, New York Inc, 305p.
Mohajjel, M., Fergusson, C.L., Sahandi, M.R., 2003.  Cretaceous-Tertiary convergence and continental collision, Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, western Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 21(4), pp.397-412.
Momenzadeh, M., 1976. Stratabound lead zinc ores in the lower Cretaceous and Jurassic sediments in the Malayer-Esfahan District (West Central Iran): Lithology, Metal content, Zonation and Genesis. PhD Thesis, University of Heidelberg, 300 pp.
Nadimi, A., Konon, A., 2012. Strike-slip faulting in the central part of the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Zagros Orogen, Iran, Journal of Structural Geology,40, 2-16.
Roedder, E., 1984. Fluid Inclusions, Mineralogical Society of America, Reviews in Mineralogy, v. 12, 644 p.
Sangster, D., Leach, D.L., 1995. Evidence for a genetic link between SEDEX and MVT deposits. In: Leach, D.L., Goldhaber, M.B. (Eds.), Extended Abstracts, International Field Conference on Carbonate-hosted Lead–Zinc Deposits, St. Louis Missouri, June 1–4, pp. 260–263.
Shepherd, T.J., Rankin, A.H. and Alderton, D.H.M., 1985. A Practical Guide to Fluid Inclusion Studies, Glasgow, Blackie and Son, 239 p.
Wilkinson, J.J., 2001. Fluid inclusion in hydrothermal ore deposits, Lithos 55, 229-272.
Zahedi, M., 1975. Geological map of Najafābād, 1:100000, Geological Survey of Irān.