Geochemical Investigations of mineralizing fluid, and economic evaluation based on Fluid Inclusion Studies in the Chah-Firuzeh Porphyry Copper Deposit, North of Shahre Babak, Kerman Province


Department of Mining and Metallugical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


The Chah-Firuzeh porphyry copper deposit is located 35 km north of Shahre Babak (Kerman province). It is associated with granodioriteic pluton of Miocene age, which intruded Eocene volcano sedimentary rocks.  Copper mineralization was accompanied by both potassic and phyllic alterations.  Field observations and petrographic studies demonstrate that the emplacement of Chah-Firuzeh pluton took place in several intrusive pulses, each with associated hydrothermal ore fluid formation that was also associated with hydrostatic pressure increasing related to that of lithostatic pressure (and fracturing development-relative boiling) by circulated fluid. Copper is concentrated as a very early hydrothermal mineralized phase in the evolution of the hydrothermal system. Early hydrothermal alteration produced a potassic assemblage (orthoclase‑biotite) in the central deep part of the stock.  Alteration of ore fluids could be classified into two groups: A) liquid-reach, containing solid phases, with high temperature (320 to 500 oC) and high salinity (more than 60 wt% NaCl equiv.). B) gas-rich, with high temperature (310 to 570 oC), no solid phase and low salinities. These magmatic fluids illustrate sever boiling processes that are responsible for both potassic alterations, quartz group I and II veins and chalcopyrite deposition. Propylitic alteration is caused by the liquid-rich, low temperature (220 to 360 oC) and Ca-rich fluid with meteoric origin. Continuous decreasing temperature lets the meteoric water diffuse into the system, mix with magmatic fluids and descending the salinities down to the 1 wt% NaCl equiv. and leaching Cu from vein groups II and III by sever thermodynamic anarchies from potassic to the phyllic alteration zones. Phyllic alteration and copper leaching were resulted from the inflow of oxidized and acidic meteoric waters with decreasing temperature of the system followed by the incursion of this fluid into and its convection in top of the system. A late episode of boiling occurred in the upper part of the phyllic zone, and was associated with significant copper deposition. Based on the field observation on sharp alteration and related mineralization, it is possible to say that all these procedures have been controlled by local faults that could be active even before the pluton injection. These faults and the new form ones (which have been formed after injection), could crash the host rocks, and act as physical dams to restrict and limit the mineralization in special strikes and zones.


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